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علل شكست در رژيم هاى غذايى

علل شكست در رژيم هاى غذايى

شايد شما هم از زمره افراد چاقى باشيد كه بارها رژيم هاى مختلف درمانى را امتحان كرده ولى در حين دوره رژيم لاغرى از ادامه آن صرف نظر كرده ايد. بسيارى هم پس از كاهش وزن و با گذشت مدت زمانى كوتاه دوباره شروع به پرخورى كرده و به وزن قبلى و يا حتى به بيشتر از آن مى رسند. اين مسئله باعث سرخوردگى شده و معمولاً تمايل به ادامه رعايت رژيم غذايى يا شروع مجدد آن از بين مى رود. در مطلب زير به بررسى علل شكست در رژيم هاى غذايى مختلف پرداخته مى شود. اولين و مهمترين انگيزه لازم براى رعايت يك رژيم غذايى علمى و خوب اين است كه شما هدف خود را از كاهش وزن دقيقاً مشخص كرده و هميشه در طول دوره رژيم غذايى به آن فكر كنيد. بسيارى از بيماران چاق كه براى كاهش وزن مراجعه مى كنند اولين خواسته شان اين است كه سريعاًوزن كم كنند. تبليغات وسيعى هم در اين زمينه صورت گرفته و اين باعث شده تا بيماران از مسير اصلى خود منحرف شوند اما بايد گفت صرفاً «نخوردن» باعث تحقق آمال و آرزوها نخواهد بود بلكه فرد بايد خود را تغيير دهد يعنى عادات غلط غذايى و فعاليت هاى تغذيه اى خود را عوض كنيد و اين ترك عادت مستلزم گذر زمان مناسبى است. مطمئن باشيد اگر در رفتارهاى تغذيه اى خود تغيير ندهيد نمى توانيد وزن خود را كم كنيد. معده يك بافت عضلانى است و مثل همه عضلات ديگر بدن در صورت كار زياد بزرگتر مى شود. بايد سعى كنيد با رعايت رژيم غذايى مناسب و تغيير در رفتارهاى غلط تغذيه اى براى يك دوره زمانى كاملاً مشخص كار كمترى از معده خود بكشيد و حجم معده خود را كوچك نماييد.
رعايت رژيم هاى غذايى غيراستاندارد
امروزه كتب مختلفى در زمينه رژيم نوشته شده است در اين كتب روش
 هاى آب درمانى، رژيم هاى گياه خوارى، رژيم هاى ميوه خوارى، رژيم بستنى و هزاران مورد ديگر توصيه شده است. علم تغذيه رژيم هاى تك خوارى را نفى مى كند و پيشنهادش اين است كه رژيم غذايى مفيد و موثر رژيمى است كه از هر پنج گروه مواد غذايى تشكيل شده باشد يعنى در تركيبات آن پروتئين، كربوهيدرات (قند و شيرينى)، چربى، ويتامين ها و املاح به طور مشخص و دقيق لحاظ شده باشد. گروه هاى غذايى مختلف حاوى مواد مورد نياز براى بدن است كه مكمل هم هستند. همه چيز در يك نوع ماده غذايى وجود ندارد بنابراين عدم رعايت رژيم صحيح غذايى سبب كمبودهاى جبران ناپذيرى مى شود كه ممكن است عوارض مهلكى را به دنبال داشته باشد. افرادى كه از رژيم هاى گياهخوارى استفاده مى كنند بايد بدانند كه آهن موجود در گياهانى مثل اسفناج از نوع غيرقابل جذب براى بدن است و درصد كمى از آن جذب مى شود. آهن قابل جذب براى بدن آهنى است كه منشاء پروتئينى داشته باشد (گوشت قرمز). بنابراين كمبودهاى ناشى از رژيم هاى گياه خوارى مثل كمبود آهن عوارض خطرناكى چون كم خونى، ريزش مو و موارد ديگرى را كه مربوط به آهن بدن است به دنبال خواهد داشت كه همين مسئله خود باعث ترس از رژيم به خاطر عوارض بد آن و بالاخره شكست در برنامه هاى مذكور مى شود.
رژيم غذايى تنها راه حل نيست
طى تحقيقات به عمل آمده اگر روزانه ۱۱۰۰ كيلوكالرى از ميزان غذايى كه مى
 خوريد كم كنيد در عرض يك هفته يك كيلوگرم از وزن بدن شما كاسته خواهد شد. در تحقيق ديگرى همين مقدار كالرى كاسته شده است با اين تفاوت كه ۶۰۰ كيلوكالرى از مواد غذايى روزانه كم شده و ۵۰۰ كيلوكالرى فعاليت بدنى جهت به اصطلاح سوزاندن مواد غذايى و در حقيقت دفع انرژى مصرفى تجويز شده است ولى جالب است كه در حالت دوم بيش از يك كيلوگرم در هفته كاهش وزن مشاهده شده است. حال اگر ۷۰ كيلوگرم هستيد حدود ۲۵۰۰ كيلوكالرى نياز روزانه شما به مواد غذايى است در حالت اول شما بايستى غذايتان را تقريباً نصف كنيد چرا كه بايستى ۱۱۰۰ كيلوكالرى روزانه كمتر بخوريد و بتوانيد هفته اى يك كيلوگرم وزن كم كنيد ولى در حالت دوم شما فقط يك چهارم غذاى خود را كم مى كنيد و با افزودن فعاليت بدنى بيش از يك كيلوگرم در هفته كاهش وزن مشاهده مى كنيد. در حقيقت در حالت دوم شما گرسنگى كمترى احساس خواهيد كرد چرا كه غذاى بيشترى را مصرف مى كنيد بنابراين توصيه مى شود رژيم غذايى را تنها راه حل براى كاهش وزن در نظر نگرفته و وزن خود را توام با رژيم غذايى و فعاليت بدنى كم كنيد.
تكيه بر داروهاى لاغرى
اگر به دنبال ميانبرهايى براى كم كردن وزن خود مى
 گرديد بدانيد كه داروهاى لاغرى ميانبر صحيحى براى شما نيستند. استفاده از اين گروه از داروها صرفاً در موارد خاصى كاربرد دارد كه بايستى با تجويز پزشك و تحت نظر آن صورت گيرد. داروهاى مورد تاييد كتب مرجع تغذيه انگشت شمار بوده كه لازم است اطلاعاتى از آنها داشته باشيد. گروهى از آنها باعث كاهش اشتها مى شوند (مثل سيبوترامين) كه با توجه به اينكه روى آزاد شدن هورمون هاى خاصى مثل سروتونين و كاته كولامين ها اثر مى كند عوارض خطرناكى از جمله افزايش فشار خون، افزايش ضربان قلب، اضطراب، تعريق و عصبانيت دارد. گروه ديگر روى جذب مواد غذايى چرب تاثير كرده (مثل اورلى استات) كه فقط ۳۰ درصد از چربى هاى خورده شده را دفع مى كند و اين در حالى است كه روى جذب ساير مواد غذايى مثل شكلات و شيرينى هيچ تاثيرى ندارند بنابراين تصور نكنيد كه با مصرف اين داروها شما هر اندازه كه دلتان بخواهد مى توانيد از مواد غذايى گوناگون استفاده كنيد. بدانيد كه اين داروها از ۱۰۰ گرم چربى مصرف شده تا حدود ۳۰ گرم را دفع مى كند و البته عوارضى چون اسهال چرب، كاهش ويتامين هاى محلول در چربى مثل A، D، E، K را شاهد خواهيد بود.
انگيزه لازم براى رژيم گرفتن را براى خود مشخص كرده و دائماً به فكر آن باشيد. رژيم غذايى مناسب دريافت كنيد، از ورزش غافل نشويد و در كارتان جديت و پشتكار به خرج دهيد. عادات غذايى بد خود را شناسايى كرده و آنها را تغيير دهيد. هيچ دارويى نيست كه بتوانيد با آن يك
 شبه ره صدساله بپيماييد.


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Weight Loss:چطور بهداشتی بخوريم
Weight Loss:
Nutrition 101: How to Eat Healthy

Most health experts recommend eating a balanced, healthy diet to maintain or lose weight. But what is a healthy diet?

The basic components of a healthy diet include the right amount of:

  • Protein (found in fish, meat, poultry, dairy products, eggs and beans)
  • Fat (found in animal and dairy products, nuts, and oils)
  • Carbohydrates (found in fruits, vegetables, pasta, rice, grains, beans and other legumes, and sweets)
  • Vitamins (such as vitamins A, B, C, D, E, and K)
  • Minerals (such as calcium, potassium, and iron)
  • Water

What Are Calories?

Of these six nutrients, only carbohydrates, proteins, and fats provide calories. A calorie is a measurement, just like a teaspoon or an inch. Calories are the amount of energy released when your body breaks down food. The more calories a food has, the more energy it can provide to your body. When you eat more calories than you need, your body stores the extra calories as fat. Even low-carb and fat-free foods can have a lot of calories that can be stored as fat.

What Are Proteins?

Proteins are nutrients that are essential to the building, maintenance, and repair of body tissue such as the skin, the internal organs and muscle. They are also the major components of our immune system and hormones.

Proteins are made up of substances called amino acids -- 22 are considered vital for health. Of these, the adult body can make 14; the other eight (called essential amino acids) can only be obtained from what we eat.

Proteins are found in all types of food, but only fish, meat, eggs, cheese, and other foods from animal sources contain complete proteins, meaning they provide the eight essential amino acids.

Your daily diet must contain enough protein to replenish these amino acids. Thus, if you are vegetarian and do not eat food from animal sources, you need to eat a variety of plant proteins in combination to ensure that you get enough of the essential amino acids.

The new dietary reference values for protein for adults are 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight. This translates to about 0.36 grams of protein per pound.

However, over the course of a day, the average American diet includes almost double the protein needed to help maintain a healthy body. Using the chart below, you can easily calculate how much protein your body needs.

Adult Weight

Suggested Daily Grams of Protein

100

36

125

45

150

54

175

63

200

72

225

81

Is Any Fat Healthy?

A certain amount of fat in the diet is good and necessary to be healthy. Adults should get 20%-35% of their calories from fat. However, nutrition experts agree that most Americans should eat less fat than they currently do. Research shows that excessive intake of fat -- especially trans fat and saturated fat -- and cholesterol increases the risk of heart disease. Eating too much fat can cause excess body weight, since a gram of fat has about twice as many calories per gram as carbohydrates (see below) and proteins. (There are 9 calories per gram of fat compared with 4 calories for protein and carbohydrates.)

Fat is made up of compounds called fatty acids or lipids. Depending on their chemical structure, these fatty acids are called monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, saturated, or trans fats. Trans fats and saturated fats are the unhealthiest fats to eat. Trans fats are formed when manufacturers turn liquid oils into solid fats, such as with shortening and hard margarine. Trans fats can also be found in many foods, including crackers (even healthy-sounding ones), cereals, baked goods, snack foods, salad dressings, fried foods, and many other processed foods.

Problems with too much dietary fat can aslo come when 10% or more of your daily calories come from saturated fats such as those found in meats, high-fat dairy products, and butter and foods cooked or made with hydrogenated fats. And consuming trans fats in any amount is also not recommended. These practices may lead to high blood cholesterol levels and heart disease.

What Are Carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates provide fuel for the body in the form of glucose. Glucose is a sugar that is the primary source of energy for all of the body's cells. Adults should get about 45%-65% of their calories from carbohydrates.

Carbohydrate sources include many foods that are nutrient-rich such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes, as well as foods such as candy, pastries, cookies, and flavored beverages (soft drinks and fruit drinks), which provide insignificant amounts of vitamins, minerals and other essential nutrients.

What Are Vitamins?

Vitamins help with chemical reactions in the body. In general, vitamins must come from the diet; the body doesn't make them.

There are 13 vitamins essential to the body. They are divided into two categories: water-soluble (vitamin C and all the B vitamins) and fat-soluble (vitamins A, D, E and K). The fat-soluble vitamins are more easily stored by the body. Thus, you do not need large amounts of these vitamins since excess amounts can be toxic and cause a variety of problems.

Because the water-soluble vitamins aren't stored for long in the body, we must consume them daily. And, although taking large doses of these vitamins isn't necessarily dangerous, it may be wasteful as the body eliminates the excess water-soluble vitamins in the urine.

What Are Minerals?

Minerals, like vitamins, must come from the diet; the body doesn't make them. Many minerals are vital to the proper function of the body and must be taken in relatively large amounts (such as calcium, potassium and iron.) Others, like trace minerals (zinc, selenium and copper), are only needed in small amounts to maintain good health.

How Does Water Promote Health?

Although it has no food value, water is essential to our survival. It keeps the body adequately hydrated. Water is the most plentiful substance in the body, accounting for 55%-65% of body weight, but because the body can't store water, we must constantly replenish it.

What Makes Up a Healthy Diet?

A healthy diet should consist of:

  • 45% to 65% carbohydrates.
  • 10% to 35% protein.
  • 20% to 35% fat, with no more than 10% saturated fat and very little (or no) trans fat.

The Food Pyramid published by the USDA makes it easy to envision just how much of each food type you should eat.

Each section of the pyramid represents a food group; the size of the group corresponds to the number of recommended servings. The base of the pyramid represents the grain group. These are carbohydrate-rich foods like bread, cereal, rice and pasta. You should eat six to 11 servings per day of these foods. The next tier of the pyramid includes vegetables and fruit. You should eat three to five servings per day of vegetables and two to four servings per day of fruit. These are good sources of vitamins, minerals and fiber. The next level is protein, like dairy products, meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs and nuts. You should eat two to three servings per day of foods from the milk group and two to three servings per day of foods from the meat, egg, bean and nut group. The top level of the pyramid is fats, oils and sweets; these should be used sparingly.

The pyramid calls for eating a variety of foods to get all of the nutrients you need, and, at the same time, the right amount of calories to maintain a healthy weight. If you're watching your weight, eat the minimum number of recommended servings. If you need to gain weight, eat the maximum number of servings. And, keep in mind as to what constitutes a serving. Most serving sizes are smaller than you think. Be sure to read the food labels carefully to determine the accurate portion size.

Also, try to choose nonfat and lean foods as often as possible. For example, choose nonfat or 1% milk instead of 2% or whole milk; lean meat instead of fatty meat; and breads and cereals that are not processed with a lot of fat.

But you don't have to completely avoid all foods that have fat, cholesterol, or sodium. It's your average over a few days, not in a single food or even a single meal that's important. If you eat a high-fat food or meal, balance your intake by choosing low-fat foods the rest of the day or the next day. Read the food labels on everything you eat to help you "budget" your fat, cholesterol, and sodium over several days


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